Resource Materials

The following list is a small selection of the many materials available in our National Resource Center on The Link between Animal Abuse and Human Violence. Please contact the National Link Coalition for additional information.

A goal of the National Link Coalition is to make resource materials freely available. Although we love to keep our content free to ensure that it can be utilized by everyone, if you are able, please consider making a donation. We make your donations go a long way and we greatly appreciate any support you’re able to offer!

Goto General Fact Sheets & Overviews of The Link
Goto Domestic Violence and Animal Cruelty
Goto Child Abuse and Animal Cruelty
Goto Elder Abuse and Animal Cruelty
Goto Animal Hoarding
Goto Tools for Local Link Coalitions
Goto Tools for Veterinarians
Goto Tools for Law Enforcement
Goto Tools for Prosecutors and Judges
Goto Tools for Social Work
Goto Tools for Health Professionals
Goto National Link Coalition Organizational Documents

General Fact Sheets & Overviews of The Link

About the National Link Coalition (Trifold brochure about us and what we have accomplished)

The Link: Why Is It Important to You and Your Clients?   (National Link Coalition 4-panel Brochure)

The Link: How You Can Use It to Inform Your Work     (National Link Coalition 3-panel Brochure)

Understanding The Link  (National Link Coalition’s 16-page summary of research and multidisciplinary strategies)

The Link Across the Lifespan (16-page monograph written by the National Link Coalition for the Academy on Violence and Abuse)

Timeline of Link History (Chronology of Link interest from the 12th Century to the present)

The Link for Students (Customizeable PowerPoint presentation for high school students)

The Link for Students — Lesson Plan (Instructor’s guide and discussion points for presenting the PowerPoint)

The Cruelty Connection (Alberta SPCA booklet on how The Link is applicable to service providers, domestic violence survivors, teachers, police, prosecutors, and veterinarians)

The Violence Link  (12-page Link literature review published in 2018 by Humane Canada)

The Violence Link in Practice (2023 report by Humane Canada on the Link’s implications for family justice professionals)

Research-Summary (American Humane Association compilation of relevant Link data)

Breaking the Cycles of Violence (Manual)   (Latham Foundation’s  newly-revised and updated 3rd edition:  94-page cross-training/cross-reporting guide for domestic violence, child protection, adult protection, and animal care & control agencies)

Breaking the Cycles of Violence (Video)   (Latham Foundation’s video on The Link)

Child Abuse, Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: Linking the Circles of Compassion for Prevention and Intervention   (479-page textbook by Frank Ascione & Phil Arkow)

Cross-Reporting — By Reporter (chart of state cross-reporting mandates for animal care & control, child protection, adult protection, and veterinary officials)

Cross-Reporting — By Type of Abuse    (chart of state mandatory & permitted reporting of child abuse, animal abuse, and elder abuse)

Cross-Reporting — State-by-State  (2019 compilation of 50 states’ statutes covering veterinary reporting of animal abuse and immunity, and cross-reporting between child and animal protection; Updated in 2022)

Cross-Reporting – Full 2-way  (compilation of state laws where child and/or animal protection are mandated to report animal abuse, and animal care and/or control are mandated to report child and/or elder abuse)

Cross-Reporting — Connecticut Form (one-page animal abuse reporting form initiated in 2014 for the Connecticut Depts. of Agriculture and Children & Families.

Cross-Reporting — Sample Form   (one-page child/animal abuse cross-reporting form from Guelph, Ontario)

Pets, Families & Interagency Working (Summary report on The Link from U.K.’s Parliament)

Review of Literature on The Link (U.K. NSPCC literature review by Hackett & Uprichard)

Understanding the Links   (Booklet from U.K.’s Links Group & NSPCC)

Child Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Animal Abuse (Frank Ascione and Phil Arkow’s pioneering collection of original essays and survivors’ stories about The Link)

The National Plan to End Interpersonal Violence (44-page (44-page plan with 22 recommendations to significantly reduce, if not end, all forms of interpersonal violence and abuse)

Domestic Violence and Animal Cruelty

The Power & Control Wheel and Animal Abuse (adaptation of the domestic violence Power & Control wheel to show how animals are affected)

What Lawyers Can Do When Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse Intersect (2023 NY State Law Journal article by Amy Bogardus with legal strategies for victims’ attorneys)

Pet Abuse as Part of Intimate Partner Violence  (2018 New Zealand Women’s Refuges study identifying motivations and dynamics of animal abuse and domestic violence)

Options for Women with Pets Leaving Abusive Situations (12-page report by Ontario Association of Interval & Transition Houses on advantages, barriers and implementation of pet sheltering options)

“Animal Abuse and Domestic Violence” (2-page flyer by the Ending Violence Association of British Columbia on Link issues and strategies)

Animal Abuse as “Emotional Blackmail” (7-page summary by Phil Arkow on how and why animals are targeted in domestic violence and emerging policy and program responses)

Fact Sheet — Domestic Violence & Animal Abuse    (From NCADV & AHA)

Domestic Violence and Pets: Breaking Barriers to Safety and Healing (Urban Resource Institute and National Domestic Violence Hotline PALS report and survey of 2,480 survivors about impact of pets in their decision-making and options.)

The Human-Animal Bond in the Domestic Violence Context (A Technical Assistance Guideline developed for the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence)

Animal Safekeeping Program Resource Guide (Saskatchewan SPCA guide to help animal shelters, veterinarians and boarding kennels provide safety for survivors’ pets)

Resource Guide for Starting a Pet Sheltering Program (33-page guide from S.A.A.V. with sample legal forms for sheltering animals of domestic violence survivors)

Keeping the Family All Together (8-page article on pet-friendly homeless and domestic violence shelters by the Institute for Children, Poverty & Homelessness).

Representing Domestic Violence Survivors with Pets (Animal Welfare Institute manuals for attorneys and advocates in 35 states to help obtain pet protection orders)

Pets as Pawns   (Domestic violence & animal abuse in New Zealand)

Animal Abuse = Domestic Violence (state statutes where animal abuse is within laws defining domestic violence)

The Case of the Battered Pet   (2008 article from Oprah Winfrey’s O Magazine)

Pet Protective Orders (2008 article by Phil Arkow for American Bar Assn. Commission on Domestic Violence)

Pet Protective Orders: Summary by State   (List of states and statutes allowing courts to include animals in Protection-From-Abuse orders)

Divorces and Pet Custody (List of states where courts can award custody of pets in the animals’ best interests)

Safety Planning for Pets — Guidelines   (from Sheltering Animals and Families Together)

Safety Planning for Pets — Examples  (Sample materials from 8 organizations)

Safety Planning for Pets – Resource Guide for Human Services (2-page flyer from the Saskatchewan SPCA advising human services agencies how to respond to The Link. It can serve as a template for you to adapt to your own community.)

Safety Planning for Pets – Resource Guide for Animal Welfare  (2-page flyer from the Saskatchewan SPCA advising animal welfare agencies how to respond to The Link. It can serve as a template for you to adapt to your own community.)

Sheltering Animals and Families Together — Start-up Manual   (3rd edition of Allie Phillips’ manual on how to house animals in domestic violence shelters)

Fund-Raising Promotional Materials (series of posters from Harbor House of Central Florida’s annual Paws for Peace pet walk that raised $50,000 in 2018.)

Guidelines for Domestic Violence Pet Support Directories  (National Link Coalition recommendations for directories of domestic violence pet sheltering and foster care programs)

Safe Havens for Pets  (Frank R. Ascione’s pioneering 307-page manual of guidelines for animal-foster care programs for domestic violence survivors)

Georgia Pet Protection Order (Standardized Family Violence Ex Parte Protective Order used in Georgia courts. Para. 19 allows court to order respondent or petitioner to not harm pets)

Ohio Pet Protection Order (Standardized Domestic Violence Civil Protection Order used in Ohio courts. Para. 9 allows court to order respondent to not harm pets)

Child Abuse and Animal Cruelty

Research Summary: Animal Abuse & Child Abuse (National Link Coalition summary of key research depicting animal abuse as an Adverse Childhood Experience)

Cross-Reporting Template for CPS Agencies  (Customizable template for local child protection agency staff to identify and report suspected animal abuse)

Cross-Reporting Template for Animal Care & Control Agencies (Customizable template for animal control, humane & SPCA staff to identify and report suspected child abuse)

Animal Abuse as an Adverse Childhood Experience (ACEs)  (Barbara Boat’s 2014 article on why child abuse professionals should include animal abuse as a child’s toxic stressor)

Animal Abuse and Child Abuse: Examining the Link (Excerpted articles from 16-page newsletter from the Virginia Child Protection Network)

Confidentiality  (Review of strategies to overcome CPS/DCF confidentiality restrictions on reporting suspected animal abuse)

Cross-Reporting Cards – Ohio (flyers for Ohio child welfare workers to recognize animal abuse, and for humane agents to recognize and report child and elder abuse)

Cross-Reporting Cards – Connecticut (laminated cards to help DCF workers recognize animal abuse and report it to animal control officers and the Dept. of Agriculture, and animal control officers to recognize child maltreatment and report it to DCF.)

Cross-Reporting form – Connecticut (form developed for DCF personnel to report suspected animal abuse to animal control officers)

Cross-Reporting form – Guelph (form developed by child protection and humane services in Guelph, Ontario to cross-report child and animal abuse to each other)

Enhanced Penalties for Animal Abuse Committed in a Child’s Presence (NDAA and AWI listings of state statutes covering enhanced criminal penalties)

How Should Parents and Teachers Respond to Childhood Animal Cruelty? (Article by Phil Arkow in Japan’s English-language Maharo publication)

Animal Abuse and Youth Violence (Frank Ascione’s 2001 report for OJJDP on psychiatric, psychological and criminological research on youth- and adult-perpetrated violence)

A Common Bond: Maltreated Children and Animals in the Home   (Booklet from American Bar Assn., AHA & HSUS)

Animal Abuse & the Ecology of Abused Children   (Article By Phil Arkow from AHA’s Protecting Children journal)

The TASK Manual (Therapy Animals Supporting Kids — monograph about therapy animals in children’s advocacy centers and courtrooms)

Elder Abuse and Animal Cruelty

Elder Abuse & Animal Abuse: Implications & Strategies (2-page Research-to-Practice Brief by the National Adult Protective Services Association)

Elder Abuse & Animal Abuse: Issues and Opportunities (4-page summary report by the National Link Coalition)

Creating Safer Communities for Older Adults & Companion Animals (144-page Manual from Wisconsin)

Elder Abuse & Animal Cruelty      (Latham Letter article by Randall Lockwood)

NAPSRC Research Brief  (Research-to-Practice brief by the National Adult Protective Services Association/National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse on assessing pet issues in APS screenings)

Animal Abuse = Elder Abuse (state statutes where animal abuse constitutes elder abuse)

Protocol for Assessing Elder Abuse and Animal Welfare Issues (2008 report from Frank Ascione & Terry Peak at  Utah State University)

Follow-up Protocol for Assessing Elder Abuse and Animal Welfare Issues (2008 report from Frank Ascione & Terry Peak at Utah State University)

Animal Hoarding

Hoarding of Animals Research Consortium  (Seminal 2006 report on the need for, and strategies to create, interdisciplinary responses)

Comorbid Animal and Self-Neglect  (Jane Nathanson’s 2009 perspective of the complex dynamics of animal hoarders and their pets)

Hoarding Disorder (Fairfax County, Va. hoarding task force website with resources and videos)

Press Reports of Animal Hoarding (2002 article by Arluke, Frost et al. about news media portray animal hoarders)

Characteristics and Antecedents of Animal Hoarders (2011 exploratory study of animal hoarders)

Cognitive Performance of Animal Hoarders (2020 Brazilian study of animal hoarders’ cognitive deficits)

Challenges for Mental Health, Law Enforcement and Animal Welfare (Randy Lockwood 2018 article on multidisciplinary responses to animal hoarding)

“Noah’s Syndrome” (2022 review of 26 studies of Animal Hoarding Disorder)

“The Man Who Married His Pigeon” (Monograph by Gale Rasin offering guidance for judges handling animal hoarding cases)

“Dying Alone and Being Eaten” (2023 case study of scavenging hoarded dogs and the need for a protocol for such cases)


Tools for Local Link Coalitions

Toolkit for Starting a Link Coalition in Your Community    (36-page manual from the National Link Coalition)

North Texas Link Coalition brochure (3-panel brochure explaining the coalition)

Wallet Card (South Florida wallet-size card explaining the coalition)

Community Awareness Brochures (Two LINK brochures from San Bernardino County, Calif.)

Flyers (collection of promotional flyers announcing Link trainings)

Bookmarks, Brochure and Flyer     (Promotional materials from Leavenworth County, KS, Link Coalition)

The Maine Linkage Project (monograph on Maine’s success in a statewide Link coalition)

Forming Positive Links (2013 brochure from New Mexico’s Link coalition)

Promotional Postcard (York County, Maine, coalition postcard introducing The Link to 600 community agencies)

European Promotional Flyer (2016 European Link Coalition flyer introducing The Link to members of the European Parliament)

Tools for Veterinarians

The Veterinarian’s Framework for Identification and Response to Suspected or Known Animal Maltreatment (39-page guidance published in 2023 by AVMA with definitions, signs of maltreatment, how to file reports, risk mitigation, state laws and reporting obligations, and sample forms)

Animal Abuse Recognition & Reporting  (21-page handbook by the Ohio VMA to explain ethical and legal responsibilities, resources, forms, and FAQs for reporting suspected abuse, with a guide to effective communication)

Reporting Animal Cruelty, The Role of the Veterinarian: Establishing Protocols to Identify and Report Suspected Animal Cruelty in Massachusetts  (180-page guidance by the Animal Rescue League of Boston and the Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine)

The Role of the Veterinarian Reporting Animal Cruelty (156-page guidance by the Kirkpatrick Foundation to guide Oklahoma DVMs in establishing protocols to identify and report suspected animal abuse)

Reporting Animal Cruelty (174-page guidance by Animal Folks of Minnesota, updated in 2020, to guide DVMs in establishing protocols to identify and report suspected animal cruelty in Minnesota)

Concerns & Realities (National Link Coalition list of 20 common concerns about reporting suspected abuse, and the realities underlying such reporting)

Hospital Policies for Reporting Suspected Animal Abuse (Compilation of veterinary hospital policies and protocols for reporting)

Handbook for Veterinarians Assisting with Cruelty Cases (113-page manual by the British Columbia SPCA to guide veterinarians, staff and volunteers in the identification, documentation, investigation, and courtroom testimony involved with animal cruelty cases)

Suspected Abuse of Animals and People: Guidance for the Veterinary Team (2022 Guidance by The Links Group UK on recognizing and responding to suspected animal, domestic, child, and elder abuse)

Guidance for Veterinarians to Respond to Suspected Cruelty, Abuse and Neglect (56-page manual by American Veterinary Medical Association, the National Link Coalition & The Links Group UK)

Suspect It, Detect It” (Infographic of telltale conditions that should raise practitioner’s index of suspicion of animal abuse and prompt a report to investigative authorities)

What the Veterinarian Needs to Know (Phil Arkow’s 2015 article from Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports guiding practitioners’ recognition and response to animal cruelty, abuse and neglect)

Implications of Animal Abuse for Veterinary Pathologists (2016 Veterinary Pathology article by Randy Lockwood & Phil Arkow about the medico-legal aspects and psychological motivations for animal abuse)

The Veterinary Profession’s Role in Preventing Family Violence (Arkow/Munro chapter on how physicians overcame objections to recognizing and reporting child abuse and domestic violence)

Guidance for Veterinarians Dealing with Cases of Suspected or Actual Animal Abuse and Family Violence
(30-page guidebook by the New Zealand Veterinary Council)

How Veterinarians Can Protect Public Safety (Martha Smith-Blackmore’s user-friendly One Health flyer on 16 DVM roles to protect animal and human health)

Resource Guide for Veterinarians (brochure to help DVMs understand the connections between animal abuse and domestic violence and what they can do)

Protocol for Reporting Animal Cruelty and Animal Fighting (Sample protocol and issue briefing from the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association)

Tools for Law Enforcement

IACP Resolution (2022 International Association of Chiefs of Police resolution supporting animal cruelty investigations to protect public safety)

Animal Cruelty as a Gateway Crime (48-page White Paper published in 2018 by the National Sheriffs Association)

The “Link” and Law Enforcement  (special 48-page issue of Sheriff & Deputy magazine from February 2019)

Animal Cruelty as a Warning Behavior for Terrorism (2018 report from the National Counterterrorism Center, Dept.of Homeland Security, and FBI)

Link Checklist for Law Enforcement Officers (9-point plan by Teena Stoddert and Mark Randell to guide police in protecting people and animals)

Animal Cruelty as an Indicator and Predictor Crime (summary of how animal abuse is linked to domestic violence, youth crime, child abuse, and other crimes)

Animal Abuse as a Risk Factor for First Responders (Andrew Campbell’s infographic describing additional risks posed by domestic violence/animal abuse offenders)

The Role of Veterinary Forensics in Animal Cruelty Investigations (Martha Smith-Blackmore’s 2018 article in IACP’s Police Chief magazine)

NIBRS User Manual (Guide for animal control and humane law officers to report cruelty cases to the FBI)

Who Can You Call for Help in Animal Cruelty Cases? (Adam Leath’s description of 39 suspicious signs in the Winter 2016 Florida Sheriffs Assn. magazine)

Animal Cruelty: Hidden Crimes, Voiceless Victims (compilation of 13 articles from the National Sheriffs Assn.’s 2013  “Deputy & Court Officer” magazine on how animal cruelty laws, therapy dogs, and animal rescue impact law enforcement)

The Link and Law Enforcement (summary report of the premises why animal crimes are important, key quotes from experts, and a look at animal abuse “by the numbers)

The Link for Law Enforcement (pdf of a Latham Foundation PowerPoint. Click on the word-balloon in the upper left-hand corner of each slide to see speaker’s notes)

Animal Cruelty Investigation & Prosecution (Link-based user’s manual for New Hampshire law enforcement personnel)

Tools for Prosecutors and Judges

Understanding The Link between Violence to Animals and People: A Guidebook for Criminal Justice Professionals (84-page monograph by Allie Phillips on the importance of The Link to domestic violence, child abuse, elder abuse, youth crimes, animal fighting and hoarding, and guidelines for investigating, prosecuting and sentencing Link crimes.)

Investigating & Prosecuting Animal Abuse  (newly revised and updated guidebook for law enforcement and prosecutors, by Allie Phillips & Randall Lockwood)

Virginia Bench Card for Judges (2022 information sheet for Virginia judges explaining The Link and its implication in family law and animal cruelty cases)

Florida’s Domestic Violence Benchbook (2020 guidelines for judges on addressing pet abuse in domestic violence court proceedings and facility dogs for witnesses)

Bench Card for Judges (checklist of questions to assess risks, including animal abuse history, for judges deciding whether to dissolve a protection order)

Animal Cruelty Prosecution: Opportunities for Early Response to Crime and Interpersonal Violence  (Randall Lockwood’s 53-page booklet from American Prosecutors Research Institute)

Animal Cruelty Psychological Assessment Instruments (List of available assessments for offenders)

Animal Cruelty Issues: What Juvenile and Family Court Judges Need to Know   (2019 Technical Assistance Bulletin from the NCJFCJ)

Juvenile & Family Court Judges and the Animal Abuse-Domestic Violence Link     (Article from NCJFCJ magazine)

Prosecutors & Law Enforcement Agencies with Dedicated Specialists (list of prosecution and law enforcement agencies with dedicated animal cruelty crime units)

Albany County, NY District Attorney Animal Abuse Task Force (Prosecutor’s announcement of task force to stop domestic violence by reporting animal cruelty)

Tools for Social Work

The Link between Interpersonal Violence and Animal Abuse (2019 report by Vincent, McDonald, Poe & Deisner on need to include animals in social work policy, research and practice)

Schools of Social Work Addressing Human-Animal Interactions (Listing of US and Canadian Schools of Social Work believed to include human-animal bond in curricula)

Policy Brief  (2-page policy briefing prepared by Miranda Sve for a social work public policy class)

Tools for Health Professionals

Intimate Partner Violence as a Health Issue  (2006 article by Peggy Goodman about medical ramifications of domestic violence and its links to child/animal/elder abuse and workplace/school violence)

Dangerousness Assessment  (Randy Lockwood’s checklist of 33 aggravating factors that an animal cruelty offender poses a risk for interpersonal violence)

Childhood Trust Survey on Animal-Related Experiences  (Barbara Boat’s 10-question screening mechanism for children, adolescents and adults)

Briefing Paper for Mental Health Professionals    (By Ken Shapiro)

Animal Abuse as an Antisocial Behavior    (Journal article by Eleonora Gullone)

National Link Coalition Organizational Documents

Hit Free Zone Poster  (Customizable poster for human and veterinary health clinics, domestic violence and animal shelters, and others to prevent violence in their facilities)

Hit Free Zone – Instructions for Participants (How your facility can use the Hit Free Zone poster to prevent violence against people and animals)

Hit Free Zone – Guidelines for Staff  (Suggested, customizable language staff can use to defuse arguments before they escalate into physical violence)

Proceedings From the June 2008 National Town Meeting on The Link

Proceedings of the 2010 Denver Roundtable

Proceedings of the 2012 National Link Coalition Summit

Biennial Report from the 2014 National Link Coalition Summit, Mesa, Ariz.

Biennial Progress Report from the 2016 Summit, Minneapolis, Minn.

Video of the 2016 Summit, Minneapolis, Minn.